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Ann Acad Med Stetin, 2006; 52, 3, 103-114




Zakład Protetyki Stomatologicznej Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej

al. Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin

Kierownik: dr hab. n. med. Bogumiła Frączak



Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease causing systemic disorders that are also noticeable in the oral cavity, as first described by Seifert in 1862. Manifestations in the oral cavity include abnormal development of dentition, increased frequency and intensity of caries, pathologies of the oral mucosa, salivary glands and parodontium, as well as atrophic changes in alveolar processes. The role of diabetes in the etiopathogenesis of lesions in the oral cavity remains the focus for research, discussions, and controversies.

The present work was undertaken to:

1) describe differences in oral health status between patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 depending on glycemic control;

2) determine the severity of lesions in the oral cavity depending on the duration of diabetes mellitus;

3) establish the effect of visits to a sanatorium on oral health status and dental service needs;

4) determine the effect of gender on oral health status and dental service needs in diabetic patients;

5) establish the relation between the place of residence, oral health status, and dental service needs in diabetic patients.

Material and methods: The study was done in 300 patients with diabetes mellitus, aged 17 to 85 years, including 154 females and 146 males, visiting a diabetology sanatorium. The type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, and adequacy of glycemic control were determined. The DMFT value, caries treatment index, oral hygiene status, parodontal status according to Bellini, type of dental defects according to Galasińska, and oral mucosa status according to Newton with reference to the baseline status according to Spiechowicz were established. The type and condition of prostheses classified as fixed, removable, butt joint, and complete was established. The place of residence of the patient, whether town or village, was taken into account. The number and frequency of visits to a sanatorium were recorded.

Results: It was found that there are differences between oral health status in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Uncontrolled glycemia, regardless of the type of diabetes, exerts an adverse effect on oral hygiene status. During diabetes, pathologic lesions develop in the oral cavity. Visits to a diabetology sanatorium were associated with improved oral health status and reduced dental service needs. A strong correlation was noted between gender, oral health status, and dental service needs, to the disadvantage of female patients. There was also a relation between the place of residence (town, village), oral health status, and dental service needs, to the advantage of patients residing in towns.

K e y w o r d s: diabetes mellitus – oral health status – dental service needs.
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